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That’s the reason why I am not going to explain software architectures as a war, trying to convince you which one is the best and why you should use it alone. Example main()So, the only place in your application that actually creates objects that are capable of doing IO is the application’s entrypoint. The Infrastructure Layer uses them, but is does not create them. It’s responsible for dealing with the persistence , and acts like a in-memory collection of domain objects. The Infrastructure Layer should not implement any business logic, as well as any use case flow. The former are rules that are executed to implement a use case of your application.

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It is clear that coupling is necessary in order for an application to be able to do anything meaningful but this architecture pattern creates unnecessary coupling. Other books or articles may name it differently but we will stick to that definition. We have the presentation or client layer, the process or service layer, the domain or business logic layer, the data access or infrastructure layer. Sometimes you see the layers above extended with another layer sitting on the left side spawning all layers.


To avoid or to minimize hell of application integration, we must follow some basic principles while designing enterprise grade application. Another way to describe this is - focus on interfaces and contracts and hide the implementation as much as possible from others. Second bedrock principle is understanding business domain you are architecting the application for - this is termed as Domain Modeling. We can see in that simple example that refactoring from a layered architecture to an onion architecture is not enough in order to get a true onion architecture.

Disadvantages of onion architecture

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The architecture does not depend on the data layer, as in a traditional three-tier architecture; it depends on real domain models. There are several traditional architectures that exists in web world and each one of the architecture comes with its pros and cons. But most of the traditional architectures raises fundamental issues like tight coupling and separation of concerns. I am going to talk about issues faced with traditional designs and then we will see how Onion Architecture addresses these common issues. When all your business rules are in domain services instead of in your domain models, probably you have an Anemic Domain Model.

So the shape of the interface is directly related to the scenario it is used in the business logic. Outer rings implement interfaces, meaning all technology related code remains in the outer rings. The outermost ring can reference external libraries to provide implementations because it contains only technology specific code.

UI Layer

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Disadvantages of onion architecture

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Views (APIs, CLI, etc)

Business Logic Layer is probably the most important part of the application. Ideally, every application has it’s own dedicated database. In order to access the database, we introduce a Data Access Layer.

Disadvantages of onion architecture

Similar approaches have been mentioned in Ports & Adapters , Screaming Architecture (Robert C. Martin), DCI from James Coplien, and Trygve Reenskaug and BCE by Ivar Jacobson. This architecture pattern is heavily leaning on the infrastructure. The business code fills in the gaps left by the infrastructural bits and pieces. If a process or domain layer couples itself with infrastructure concerns, it is doing too much and becomes difficult to test. Especially this layer should know close to nothing about infrastructure. Infrastructure is only a plumbing support to the business layer, not the other way around.

Clean architecture series — Part 2

It should be purely logical, not performing any IO operations at all. It’s the outer-most layer, and keeps peripheral concerns like UI and tests. For a Web application, it represents the Web API or Unit Test project. This layer has an implementation of the dependency injection principle so that the application builds a loosely coupled structure and can communicate to the internal layer via interfaces.

  • Application core contains all logic necessary to run and test the application as long as necessary dependencies are provided at runtime.
  • It can be hard to implement a service using Onion Architecture when you have a database-centric background.
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  • Onion Architecture uses the concept of layers, but they are different from 3-tier and n-tier architecture layers.
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This architecture is undoubtedly biased toward object-oriented programming, and it puts objects before all others. At the very center is the domain model, which represents the business and behavior objects. Around the domain layer are other layers with more behavior.

Domain services

A Domain Service contains behavior that is not attached to a specific domain model. There are some cases where it’s hard to fit a behavior into a single domain model. Application architecture is built on top of a domain model. Onion Architecture uses the concept of layers, but they are different from 3-tier and n-tier architecture layers. Let’s see what each of these layers represents and should contain. Where you would put the project that the user or other external applications can access.

Data Mesh, Data Fabric and Data Lake Architecture - driving data products innovation in clinical research

Development efforts should start from designing the domain-code and not the data-access, the necessary plumbing should be an implementation detail. Each architecture has its own advantages and disadvantages. The main problem faced by these architectures is the separation of concerns and tight coupling.

Then, you are implementing a use case which lets the user check her or his account balance. An Application Service is a piece of code which implements a use case. The Application Layer is the second most inner layer of the architecture. A Value Object is an object that has no identity, and is immutable.

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